Thursday, April 9, 2020


The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronzeproto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. Bronze Age is divided in three sub times EBA ( Early Bronze Age 3500 BC -2100 BC )    MBA ( Middle Bronze Age 2100 BC - 1550 BC )   LBA ( Late Bronze Age 1550 BC - 1200 BC ). In some other region such as Europe , Africa and Americas this age ended even later to 600 BC or 300 BC .

Tuesday, June 12, 2018

This Customizable Bionic Arm Turns Disabilities Into Superpowers.

This robotics company created the world's first medically insured & customizable 3D printed arm.

Open Bionics is a Bristol based startup and its mission is to create and democratize technology that enhances the human body. In other words, they turn disabilities into super powers. The Hero Arm is their first bionic product, and it's the first medically certified, affordable, 3D printed bionic hand. It's got a multi grip hand with four motors inside controlling individual fingers and moving the thumb.
The Hero Arm works by picking up signals from a user's muscles. It has sensors on the inside of the socket and they sit on top of the muscles and detect a small voltage when the muscles are flexed and the hand will move in response.
Dan Melville, Open Bionics tester and ambassador said, “I didn't think this kind of technology could be possible, especially low-cost. it's just crazy, especially what I can do with the arm compared to what I could do with it three years ago. But even back then, that was still mad.”
The first thing that happens is a prosthetist will get a model of their arm, which could be physical or digital from a 3D scan. It's fed into software algorithms to create the bespoke Hero Arm for each individual person, and they then export the files for the 3D printers, 3D print them and then assemble everything together into that person's Hero Arm. 
One of the things that Open Bionics is most proud of is the fact that you can change the look and style of the arm. They have a customizer so users can design their own arm and change the colors. It's an expression of individuality and it means that you have choice over the way that your prosthesis looks.
"We much prefer the kind of prostheses that we're making which don't pretend to look like a human limb, and they're saying you're unique, you're different and that's brilliant, you should celebrate that. Same way like the glasses I'm wearing today, I wouldn't wear skin colored glasses frames that try and look like eyes, it's totally ridiculous to even consider that,” says Open Bionics CEO Joel Gibbard.  
And for Dan: “People's eyes light up and it's just nice to have questions like how does this arm work as opposed to what happened to you kind of thing.”

Sunday, May 13, 2018

This is the music people listen to when they're feeling happy, sad or angry

Music is mysterious stuff. It affects us in a way nothing else does. It may be that the brain contains special neural mechanisms dedicated to processing this special sort of sound. We know that studying and listening to music can enhance our learning abilities, but we don’t really understand how music touches us so profoundly, except that it’s believed that we make strong, visceral memory associations with it. For most, though not all of us, it’s a big part of our lives, and it’s an amazingly effective tool for reacting to and managing our moods. Family Center for Recovery (FCFR) surveyed 1,455 Americans about music and created Good Vibrations, a collection of intriguing infographics depicting their musical tastes and the manner in which they use music in their lives. Spoiler: Music’s use is maybe the most interesting as self-medication when vibrations aren’t so good.

Best eras

According to the survey, America’s current favorite musical era is (was?) the 1990s, with 22.1% of respondents choosing it. Next up was the 1980s at 19%. As you no doubt have discovered in your own tastes and the tastes of your friends, your age has something to do with the era you favor, and at the bottom of the visualization you’ll see exactly what period your peers prefer.Finally, there’s a handy list of when to go for best of each genre. If R&B/Soul is your jam, it’s the 1990s for you. Interesting, for the majority of genres, now (the 2010s) is the time for the best music. Or maybe we just have short memories.

Genre choice

Far and away, we’re rocking in the U.S.A., twice as much as we are, say, popping in it. Classical music is way down there at 3.16%, which is better than jazz, which doesn’t even register, relegated to the 'Other' category, along with nose-flute music/kazoo symphonies (we made that last bit up, don’t worry).One of the most intriguing of FCFR’s findings is at the bottom of this infographic: Are our beliefs and values influenced by our musical choices? For all generations, that’s a resounding “yes”, further evidence of the way music can dig deep down into our psyches.

Music we reallyreallyreally don’t like

What would an Internet opinion survey be—this one was conducted through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk—if it didn’t include some hate? Here we go.Hip-hop and rap dominate the Hot 100 these days—it’s the music of the youth—which may explain why it’s the genre with the most haters. (We may also wonder if there’s a racial component to this.) But hey, jazz finally made a list here!

Music and emotions

Here’s when FCFR’s infographics are the most interesting, with a look at how music affects our emotions, both on its own and as a form of self-medication.

Tuning out depression

88.71% of respondents said that music helps them combat depression. The top type of music for this purpose is rock at 8%, with pop and alternative tied for second around 10%, and then hip-hop/rap. Country’s not awful for this. Not so good? Blues and folk are the worst, and then everything else.

Calming anxiety

For the 78.32% of those who use music to fight feelings of anxiety, rock wins again at 14.3%, followed this time by classical (8.3%), easy listening (8%), country and pop (7.8%), and alternative (7.4). Surprisingly, the music that works worst, the music that’ll keep you on edge, is laid-back reggae, at 2.2%!

Music that makes us sad

Sometimes it’s music itself that brings us down. At the top of the list is country music, much of which, after all, is designed to make people drink more beer at bars. Next up is hip-hop/rap, which often deals with the hardships of urban life. Christian music may be designed to uplift, but it does the opposite for many, probably because it’s often about, you know, dying.

Programming our molds with music

Maybe the feelings we’ve described so far aren’t yours. Not to worry. If you’re more about joy, anger, being low on energy, are frustrated, unmotivated, disappointed, out of hope, or grieving, we’ve got you.
Fortunately, we don’t need to understand music’s magic in order to use it as accompaniment for important events, or a means of recalling memories in a way no other mnemonic device, except maybe smell, offers. Not to mention the way many of us deejay our days by selecting just the right tunes for any given moment.


This is the music people listen to when they're feeling happy, sad or angry from r/Music

Sunday, April 22, 2018

The Weird Pit of Magma Beneath Yellowstone Is Still a Mystery.

The pit of magma beneath the Yellowstone caldera is still an enigma in many ways, but researchers are now closer than ever to understanding how it became the powerhouse of the supervolcano.
A new computer model of the magma plume reveals 7 million years of underground unrest, leading up to the creation of the dual magma chambers that animate the Yellowstone caldera in modern times, scientists reported in a new study.
"This is, for the first time, the numerical look at how magma distributes itself in the crust," said study co-author Ilya Bindeman, a geoscientist at the University of Oregon.
Bindeman's doctoral student Dylan Colón spearheaded the modeling effort. In recent years, geoscientists have imaged the magma under Yellowstone, discovering a magma body that's between 2.5 and 8.7 miles (4 to 14 kilometers) deep and 9 percent melted, and a larger body of melt that's 12.5 to 28 miles deep (20 to 45 km) and 2 percent melted. The two gooey areas are separated by a "sill" of unmelted crust.
To figure out how the underside of Yellowstone got looking this way, Colón, lead author of the study, used "forward modeling," essentially running scenarios over 7 million simulated years to arrive at the current arrangement.
"He was able to choose parameters which were both realistic for Yellowstone and the ones which match geophysical observations and also geochemistry," Bindeman told Live Science.
Given that the models match reality from all these angles, Bindeman said, "we think this is what is going on under Yellowstone.
The crust over the Yellowstone plume moves about 0.8 inches (2 centimeters) a year as the North American tectonic plate shifts, Bindeman said. This creates a sort of conveyer-belt effect in which the plume has caused eruptions in a slowly advancing line over millions of years — a line visible in today's topography as the Snake River Plain. According to the new model, described April 16 in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, the head of the plume hit the crust about 6.75 million years ago, pushing melting basalts (a type of magma) into the crust. The two zones of melt formed after another 1.25 million years.
The findings also suggest that the magma plume is 315 degrees Fahrenheit (175 degrees Celsius) hotter than the surrounding mantle. Colón is now working on a paper about the geochemistry of the model, Bindeman said.
The geochemistry is important, Bindeman said, because Yellowstone's magma is bizarre. It's particularly depleted in the isotope oxygen-18, or atoms of oxygen with 10 neutrons rather than the normal eight in their nuclei. Researchers know that this depletion has to do with the way the hydrothermal system of geysers and hot springs at Yellowstone interacts with the crust, which then feeds into the magma system, creating oxygen-18-depleted magma. But it's hard to explain how this actually happens, Bindeman said, making the depleted oxygen-18 one of the "most enigmatic geochemical signatures of the plume."
The researchers hope the new model will explain these odd interactions. The model may also eventually help inform predictions of Yellowstone's future, Bindeman said.
"This modeling tells you with maybe half a kilometer [about a third of a mile] resolution where the magma is and what is the composition of this magma, how much magma, etc.," he said. With additional detail, the model could help predict the eruptive potential of that magma, he added. The last Yellowstone eruption occurred 640,000 years ago. 
Original article on Live (Stephanie Pappas).

Saturday, March 3, 2018

7 Unbelievable Places That Really Exist..

1)Swallow's Nest

The Swallow's Nest (Ukrainian: Ластівчине гніздоLastivchyne hnizdo, Russian: , Lastochkino gnezdo) is a decorative castle located at Gaspra, a small spa town between Yalta and Alupka, in the Crimean Peninsula. It was built between 1911 and 1912, on top of the 40-metre (130 ft) high Aurora Cliff, in a Neo-Gothicdesign by the Russian architect Leonid Sherwood for the Baltic German businessman Baron von Steingel.
The castle overlooks the Cape of Ai-Todor on the Black Sea coast and is located near the remains of the Roman castrum of Charax. The Swallow's Nest is one of the most popular visitor attractions in Crimea, having become the symbol of Crimea's southern coastline.
The first building on the Aurora Cliff was constructed for a Russian general circa 1895. The first structure he built was a wooden cottage romantically named the "Castle of Love." Later on, the ownership of the cottage passed to A. K. Tobin, a court doctor to the Russian Tsar.
In 1911, Baron von Steingel, a Baltic German noble who had made a fortune extracting oil in Baku, acquired the timber cottage and within a year had it replaced with the current building called Schwalbennest. The Scots Baronial and Moorish Revival styles had been introduced in the Crimea in the 1820s by Edward Blore, the architect of the Vorontsov Palace (1828–46). Compared to the Alupka and Koreiz palaces, the Swallow's Nest is closer in style to various German fairy-tale inspired castle follies, such as Lichtenstein Castle, Neuschwanstein Castle and Stolzenfels Castle, although its precarious seaside setting on the cliffs draws parallels with the Belém Tower in Portugal, or Miramare Castle on the Gulf of Trieste outside Trieste, Italy.
In 1914, von Steingel sold the building to P. G. Shelaputin to be used as a restaurant.For a short time after the 1917 Russian Revolution, the building was used only as a tourist attraction. In 1927, the Swallow's Nest survived a serious earthquake rated at 6 to 7 on the Richter scale. The building was not damaged apart from some small decorative items that were thrown into the sea along with a small portion of the cliff. However, the cliff itself developed a huge crack. In the 1930s, the building was used by a reading club from the nearby "Zhemchuzhina" (Pearl) resort, however it was closed shortly thereafter as a safety precaution due to the damage it had suffered in the quake, remaining closed for the next 40 years.
Renovation and restoration of the building was started only in 1968. The project involved the restoration of a small portion of the castle and the addition of a monolithic console concrete plate to strengthen the cliff. Since 1975, a restaurant has operated within the building. In 2011, the Swallow's Nest was closed for three months due to major restoration work estimated to cost 1,200,000 hryvnias ($150,000 USD).
2)Sơn Đoòng Cave

Sơn Đoòng Cave (Vietnamese: Hang Sơn Đoòng  'cave of the mountain river' or 'mountain cave of Đoòng [village]' in Vietnamese), is a solutional cave in Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park, Bố Trạch District, Quảng Bình Province, Vietnam. As of 2009 it has the largest known cave passage cross-section in the world, and is located near the Laos–Vietnam border. Inside is a large, fast-flowing subterranean river. It was formed in Carboniferous/Permian limestone and is believed to be between 2 and 5 million years old.Hang Sơn Đoòng was found by a local man named Hồ Khanh in 1991. The whistling sound of wind and roar of a rushing stream in the cave heard through the entrance as well as the steep descent prevented the local people from entering the cave. Only in 2009 did the cave become internationally known after a group of cavers from the British Cave Research Association, led by Howard Limbert, conducted a survey in Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng from 10 to 14 April 2009. Their progress was stopped by a large, 60-metre (200 ft) high calcite wall, which was named the Great Wall of Vietnam. It was traversed in 2010 when the group reached the end of the cave passage.According to Limbert, the main Sơn Đoòng cave passage is the largest known cave passage in the world by volume – 38.4×106 cubic metres (1.36×109 cu ft). It is more than 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) long, 200 metres (660 ft) high and 150 metres (490 ft) wide. Its cross-section is believed to be twice that of the next largest passage, in Deer Cave, Malaysia.The cave runs for approximately 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) and is punctuated by 2 large dolines, which are areas where the ceiling of the cave has collapsed. The dolines allow sunlight to enter sections of the cave which has resulted in the growth of trees as well as other vegetation.
The cave contains some of the tallest known stalagmites in the world, which are up to 70 m tall. Behind the Great Wall of Vietnam were found cave pearls the size of baseballs, an abnormally large size.
3)Hanging Temple of Hengshan

According to legend, construction of the temple was started at the end of the Northern Wei dynasty by only one man, a monk named Liao Ran  Over the next 1,400 years, many repairs and extensions have led to its present-day scale.The Hanging Temple, also Hanging Monastery or Xuankong Temple (simplified Chinese traditional Chinese pinyinXuánkōng Sì) is a temple built into a cliff (75 m or 246 ft above the ground) near Mount Heng in Hunyuan CountyDatong City, Shanxi province, China. The closest city is Datong, 64.23 kilometers to the northwest. Along with the Yungang Grottoes, the Hanging Temple is one of the main tourist attractions and historical sites in the Datong area. Built more than 1,500 years ago, this temple is notable not only for its location on a sheer precipice but also because it is the only existing temple with the combination of three Chinese traditional religions: BuddhismTaoism, and Confucianism. The structure is kept in place with oak crossbeams fitted into holes chiseled into the cliffs. The main supportive structure is hidden inside the bedrock. The monastery is located in the small canyon basin, and the body of the building hangs from the middle of the cliff under the prominent summit, protecting the temple from rain erosion and sunlight. Coupled with the repair of the dynasties, the color tattoo in the temple is relatively well preserved. On December 2010, it was listed in the “Time” magazine as the world's top ten most odd dangerous buildings.
4)Yoro Park

The primary attraction of Yoro, a town located in Gifu, Japan, on the eastern side of the Yoro Mountains, Yoro Park is a theme park described as an “experience park,” where visitors are told to expect the unexpected.Visitors to the park, which sits in a town of only 33,000, are led through the many attractions by a series of guides who know how best to manipulate the surroundings. Attractions include the Critical Resemblance House; the Reversible Destiny Office; and the Elliptical Field, which resembled a large, bowl-shaped basin. The Critical Resemblance House has a map of Gifu Prefecture as its roof and is filled with sets of furniture arranged in pairs on the floor, the ceiling, and even under the floor. The Elliptical Field is a series of nine pavilions joined by an intricate network of 148 paths.The park also includes golf courses, tennis courts, food courts, and a special area called Kid’s World. Constructed in October 1995, Yoro Park was designed to incorporate the 100 waterfalls in the immediate area, which are another popular draw for visitors.
5)Village of Monsanto
Monsanto is a village and a former civil parish in the municipality of Idanha-a-Nova, Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Monsanto e Idanha-a-Velha. It covered an area of 131.76 km² and had 828 inhabitants (June 30, 2011). It was the principal town of the concelhobetween 1174 and the beginning of the 19th century, and the county seat in the period of 1758-1853. In recent decades, Monsanto has become popularly known as "the most Portuguese village of Portugal" in a class of twelve classified historic villages in Portugal. The emblem of Portugal, the Silver Rooster (Galo de Prata), designed by Abel Pereira da Silva, can be seen atop the Clock Tower or Lucano.
The mountain Monsanto (Latin: Mons Sanctus) rises abruptly to the East of the Idanha-a-Nova up to 758 meters above sea level.
The earliest traces of man is from Early Stone Age at the time of the ice-ages. Later, Romans settled at the base of the mountain. Also traces from Visigoth in the early Middle Ages and even earlier Arab presence has been found in the area.
In the 12th century, King Afonso I of Portugal conquered Monsanto from the Moors as part of the Christian Reconquista. In 1165, he granted the custody of the city to a knights' order of the church, first to the Order of Knights Templar, and later to the Order of Santiago. The city was given to the military orders to maintain the reconquered city with Christian hands, and Grand Master the Order of Knights Templar, Gualdim Pais, was manager of the building of the fortress. Later, King Sancho I of Portugal reconstructed and repopulated it after the wars with the Leonese. Unfortunately, the medieval castle was destroyed in the nineteenth century because of an explosion in the ammunition depot of the castle.
The mountain rock is granite, which also the historic and present village is built upon in a fusion of nature and its landforms. This fusion can be seen in the uses of caves and rocks being converted into construction parts.
6)The Blue Forest
The Hallerbos (Dutch for Halle forest) is a forest in Belgium, covering an area of 552 ha (1,360 acres). It is mostly situated in the municipality of Halle, in Flemish Brabant and has also a little part in Walloon Brabant.
The forest is known in the region for its bluebell carpet which covers the forest floor for a few weeks each spring, attracting many visitors.
Visitors can reach there either by their own vehicle or through public transportation. For public transport, you can reach Halle Train station and get a bus till the entry of the forest.Historically, the Hallerbos was part of the Silva Carbonaria, along with other forests in the vicinity including the Sonian Forest and Meerdaal. As late as 1777, it was still connected by a woodland strip to the Sonian Forest. During World War I, most of the old trees were removed by the occupying German forces. Reforestation took place from 1930 to 1950.
7)Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe

Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe is a landscape park in Kassel, Germany. The area of the park is 2.4 square kilometres (590 acres), making it the largest European hillside park, and second largest park on a hill slope in the world. Construction of the Bergpark, or "mountain park", began in 1696 at the behest of the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel and took about 150 years. The park is open to the public today. Since 2013, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.At the site of today's mountain park was in the 17th century, a wooded slope of the Habichtswald, more than five kilometers west - and thus far outside - the former Kassel city limits. On the site of the current Wilhelmshöhe Castle, the Weissenstein Monastery of the Augustinian Canons was founded in 1143 from Mainz . It existed from 1193 as a nunnery and was dissolved after the Reformation in Hesse (around 1517/1518). The remaining buildings were used by Landgrave Philip I as hunting lodge. From 1606 to 1610, Landgrave Moritz von Hessen-Kassel built a hunting lodge there, which continued to bear the name of Weissenstein .The Bergpark was built from 1696 in baroque form under Landgrave Karl , as with the construction of the Small Hercules (also known as age winter box) was started. Its place of construction, on which still some wall and foundation remains are, was the hut mountain ( 555  m ). However, it was decided to abandon this mountain, which is located about 400 meters south-southeast of today's Hercules , as a focal point of the park and thus as a place of construction, so that the work was stopped.
Landgrave Karl hired in 1696 the French inventor Denis Papin , who constructed a steam pump to operate a water fountain and was one of the first inventors of a steam enginealong with Thomas Savery - the pump never worked properly. Karl was unwilling to continue to finance the development, and an attempt to cooperate with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for this purpose , who at the same time worked at the Herrenhausen Gardens in Hanover, failed because of Leibniz's lack of interest. 
Until well into the 19th century, the park was developed according to the current ideas. In particular, two construction phases were important that shape the park today.
Bibliography ________________________

[ 1 ] wikipedia ,the free encyclopedia.

Wednesday, February 28, 2018

The Day Humans Taught Robots to Fight Back.

An amazing video of a robot dog fighting off a human as it tries to open a door is not only creepy, but it also has raised the question: Why are we teaching a robot to fight back against humans?The "dog" in question is the SpotMini, a 66-lb. (30 kilograms) robot designed to fit comfortably in a home or an office. In the video, the dog is shown attempting to open a door—when a human comes with a hockey stick and shoves the robot's grasping arm away from the door knob. The robot manages to open the door anyway, and even continues standing when a human tries to pull "him" away from the door using a huge leash.It turns out, any successful robot assistant for the home needs to be good at dealing with "disturbances," according to the company ­— and that may sometimes include pesky humans. 
Unlike some of Boston Dynamics' other robots, such as the humanoid Atlas, SpotMini isn't designed to help people in a disaster situation. Instead, he's meant to be a vaguely cute home or office assistant. But that means he actually needs extra capabilities that a disaster robot might not.For instance, to be useful, a fetching robot would need to be able to pick up objects of different sizes and bring them to its "master," which many battlefield robots aren't designed to do. And the home environment also involves challenges, such as doorways, stairs and slippery obstacles, which earlier versions of the robot struggled with. So far, Boston Dynamics has shown that progressive iterations of SpotMini can do these tasks: The company  has posted videos of this little dog climbing stairs, crawling under tables, loading a dishwasher, filling the trash and bringing someone a Diet Coke.And of course, many homes have children, who are not known for their restraint when dealing with pets and other moving objects, as this video montage of babies riding Roombas reveals.Boston Dynamics doesn't explicitly mention the hazards of small children, but its tersely-worded description of the robot in the YouTube video does hint at that type of challenge."The ability to tolerate and respond automatically to disturbances like these improves successful operation of the robot," the company wrote in the caption.

Bibliography ________________________

[ 1 ] Livescience (By 

Saturday, January 27, 2018

The Most Powerful Gods And Goddesses In Ancient Egypt!

Egypt had one of the largest and most complex pantheons of gods of any civilization in the ancient world. Over the course of Egyptian history hundreds of gods and goddesses were worshipped. The characteristics of individual gods could be hard to pin down. Most had a principle association (for example, with the sun or the underworld) and form. But these could change over time as gods rose and fell in importance and evolved in ways that corresponded to developments in Egyptian society. Here are a few of the most important deities to know.

 1) Amun, Ra, and Amun-Ra – The Deities of Sun and Wind

Source: Paizo. Credits: Ekaterina Burmak, Johan Grenier, and Rob McCreary

Often considered among one of the most important ancient Egyptian gods, Amun was the divine entity who represented the air and the sun. Sometimes portrayed as the king of gods, Amun was also the patron deity of Thebes, the royal capital during the impressive New Kingdom era of Egypt, circa 16th century BC to 11th century BC. In fact, in the earlier centuries, Amun was a minor god, and as such played second fiddle to ‘war gods’ like Montu. However, the New Kingdom period brought forth the ascendancy of the diety, who was venerated as the ‘Self-Created One’.

Ra, on the other hand, was considered as one of the powerful Egyptian gods who was associated with the Pharoah – so much so, that by Fifth Dynasty, almost every ruler was symbolically hailed as the son of Ra. He was also associated with the earlier sun god Atum of Heliopolis. And over time, especially during the New Kingdom, the thriving Amun cult merged the two entities Amun and Ra into a composite god known as Amun-Ra, who was hailed as the “Lord of truth, father of the gods, maker of men, creator of all animals, Lord of things that are, creator of the staff of life.” According to many scholars, Amun-Ra sort of symbolized the combination of the invisible force (of wind) with the visible majesty (of the life-giving sun), thus establishing an all-encompassing deity who covered most aspects of creation.

 2) Maat – The Goddess of Order

Maat, also spelled Mayet, in ancient Egyptian religion, the personification of truth, justice, and the cosmic order. The daughter of the sun god Re, she was associated with Thoth, god of wisdom.
The ceremony of judgment of the dead (called the “Judgment of Osiris,” named for Osiris, the god of the dead) was believed to focus upon the weighing of the heart of the deceased in a scale balanced by Maat (or her hieroglyph, the ostrich feather), as a test of conformity to proper values.
In its abstract sense, maat was the divine order established at creation and reaffirmed at the accession of each new king of Egypt. In setting maat ‘order’ in place of isfet ‘disorder,’ the king played the role of the sun god, the god with the closest links to Maat. Maat stood at the head of the sun god’s bark as it traveled through the sky and the underworld. Although aspects of kingship and of maatwere at times subjected to criticism and reformulation, the principles underlying these two institutions were fundamental to ancient Egyptian life and thought and endured to the end of ancient Egyptian history.

3) Khepri – God of the Rising Sun – The Egyptian Scarab God

The Egyptian Scarab Beetle was associated with the god of the Rising Sun called Khepri.Khepri represents rejuvenation, divine wisdom and immortality.He was one of the forms of Ra, the sun god. Khepri was the dawn, Ra was midday and Atum was the evening sun.He was often shown as a beetle-headed man, a beetle-headed hawk or just simply the scarab beetle.or “to be transformed”. He is the creative power linked with the miracle of the first sunrise every morning. The Egyptians would refer to him as “The Shining One”.In Egyptian mythology there is a story how the corpse of Khepri is divided and buried every night. Every morning his body is resurrected and he rises in triumph.There is yet another story that says his mother Nut swallows him every evening and that he is reborn every morning.In the Book of the Dead, Khepri is summoned to overcome the penetrating fear of disintegration. The deceased proclaims that this corpse will not decay because “I am Khepri. My body parts will continue to exist.”Khepri gave the promise of a renewable life after death.

4) Hathor – The Cow Goddess

Hathor, in ancient Egyptian religion, goddess of the sky, of women, and of fertility and love. Hathor’s worship originated in early dynastic times (3rd millennium BCE). The name Hathor means “estate of Horus” and may not be her original name. Her principal animal form was that of a cow, and she was strongly associated with motherhood. Hathor was closely connected with the sun god Re of Heliopolis, whose “eye” or daughter she was said to be. In her cult centre at Dandarah in Upper Egypt, she was worshipped with Horus.There were cults of Hathor in many towns in Egypt and also abroad, for she was the patroness of foreign parts and of many minerals won from the desert. In the Sinai turquoise mines, for example, she was called “Lady of Turquoise.” At Dayr al-Baḥrī, in the necropolis of Thebes, she became “Lady of the West” and patroness of the region of the dead. In the Late Period (1st millennium BCE), women aspired to be assimilated with Hathor in the next world, as men aspired to become Osiris. The Greeks identified Hathor with their Aphrodite.

5) Anubis – The Jackal God

Possibly of the most visually recognizable of the ancient Egyptian gods, Anubis (or rather Anpu or Inpuin Egyptian language) was represented as a jackal-headed entity associated with the rites of embalming the deceased and the related afterlife. And like many contemporary Egyptian gods, Anubisdid have other aspects, but his core attributes were seemingly always related to the matters of death. For example, even during the 1st Dynasty period (circa 3100 BC), Anubis was perceived as a protector of graves – possibly to endow a positive aspect to the propensity of jackals who tended to dig up shallow graves.

To that end, Anubis pertained to one of the rare Egyptian gods, who in spite of his ancient legacy, was not venerated in dedicated precincts and temples (at least according to archaeological evidence or lack thereof). On the contrary, the tombs and mastabas of the dead were seen as his ‘places of worship’, including a particular shrine at Anubeion which contained the mummified remains of dogs and jackals. Suffice it to say, Anubis was often intrinsically related to the rites associated with death, and thus he played the role of the deity who ushered souls into the afterlife. Over time, he might have even overtaken Osiris as the main ‘judge’ in the Weighing of the Heart ceremony – as depicted in the scenes from the Book of the Dead.
Now in spite of his visually striking features and frequent ancient artistic depictions – that as we mentioned before, consisted of a black jackal’s head, Anubis played almost no part in the actual Egyptian mythology. And while the color black itself symbolized both desolation and rebirth, Anubiswas possibly also associated with the god Upuaut (or Wepwawet), another deity with canine (or dog) features but with grey fur.

6) Isis – The Magic Goddess

Probably the most famous of all Egyptian goddesses, Isis was initially associated with Hathor, thus being heralded as the personification of many of the ‘motherly’ qualities. However, she further rose in significance during the Old Kingdom period, as one of the prominent characters of the Osiris myth, in which she not only resurrects her murdered husband, the divine king Osiris but also successfully gives birth and protects his heir, Horus.This narrative was symbolically mirrored in the affairs of the ancient Egyptian state, with the very name Isis being derived from Egyptian Eset, (‘the seat’), which refers to the throne. In essence, the goddess was perceived as the divine mother of the kings, while Horus (discussed later in the article) was associated with the Pharaohs themselves. This analogy of the throne was also prevalent in the very depiction of Isis, with her original headdress carrying an empty throne that signified the seat of her slain husband.Over time, Isis was given various epithets like Weret-Kekau (‘the Great Magic’) and even Mut-Netjer(‘the Mother of the Gods’). Judging by these titles, it doesn’t come as a surprise that Isis overtook all the previous Egyptian goddesses in popularity, so much so that later on some of them were relegated to mere aspects of Isis. Moreover, the adoration of the goddess also reached beyond the traditional boundaries of ancient Egypt, to account for a persistent cult that was spread across the later Greco-Roman world.
7) Thoth – The Ibis God
Thoth, the god of writing and wisdom, could be depicted in the form of a baboon or a sacred ibis or as a man with the head of an ibis. He was believed to have invented language and the hieroglyphic script and to serve as a scribe and adviser for the gods. As the god of wisdom, Thoth was said to possess knowledge of magic and secrets unavailable to the other gods.
In underworld scenes showing the judgment undergone by the deceased after their deaths, Thoth is depicted as weighing the hearts of the deceased and reporting the verdict to Osiris, the god of the dead.

8) Horus – The Falcon God

The most well-known of all ‘avian’ Egyptian gods, Horus was also possibly one of the first known national Egyptian gods, who was worshipped in various forms and aspects from the Predynastic period to the Roman Egypt epoch. However, there are at least six known Horus entities that are mentioned in Egyptian mythology – and we will only talk about the deity otherwise hailed as Horus the Younger, the son of Osiris and Isis, and the rival of Set, his father’s murderer.

Completing the Abydos Triad, Horus was regarded as a powerful sky god who was designated as the divine protector of the pharaohs. His legacy is also fueled by his epic mythical battle against the adversary Set, from which Horus emerged victorious, thereby uniting the two lands of Egypt, albeit after losing one of his eyes. In essence, the avenging Egyptian deity was also perceived as a god of war whose name was frequently invoked before actual battles by the rulers and commanders.
As for his physical attributes, Horus, especially when combined with the sun god Ra to form Ra-Harahkhte, was usually depicted as a falcon-headed man wearing the pschent, the symbol of kingship over unified Egypt. On the other hand, his restored eye, personified as the Eye of Horus, was the ancient Egyptian symbol for protection and sacrifice. Quite intriguingly, the Ptolemaic dynasty favored another form of Horus known as Harpocrates (or ‘Horus the Child’), who was depicted as a winged-child with a finger on his lips – suggesting the virtue of silence and keeping secrets.

9) Osiris – The Dead God

Osiris, one of Egypt’s most important deities, was god of the underworld. He also symbolized death, resurrection, and the cycle of Nile floods that Egypt relied on for agricultural fertility.

According to the myth, Osiris was a king of Egypt who was murdered and dismembered by his brother Seth. His wife, Isis, reassembled his body and resurrected him, allowing them to conceive a son, the god Horus. He was represented as a mummified king, wearing wrappings that left only the green skin of his hands and face exposed.
10)Mut-The Mother of Goddess
Mut, in Egyptian religion, a sky goddess and great divine mother. Mut is thought to have originated in the Nile River delta or in Middle Egypt. She came to prominence during the 18th dynasty (1539–1292 BCE) as the companion of the god Amon at Thebes, forming the Theban triad with him and with the youthful god Khons, who was said to be Mut’s son. The name Mut means “mother,” and her role was that of an older woman among the gods. She was associated with the uraeus (rearing cobra), lionesses, and royal crowns.
At Thebes the principal festival of Mut was her “navigation” on the distinctive horseshoe-shaped lake, or Isheru, that surrounded her temple complex at Karnak. Mut was usually represented as a woman wearing the double crown (of Upper and Lower Egypt) typically worn by the king and by the god Atum. She was also occasionally depicted with the head of a lioness, particularly when identified with other goddesses, principally Bastet and Sekhmet.

Bibliography ________________________

[ 1 ] Encyclopedia britannica- written by(The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica )


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